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Anatomy & Physiology I

Course Description: Anatomy and physiology is a course that enables students to develop an understanding of the relationships between the structures and functions of the human body. Students will also learn the mechanisms for maintaining homeostasis and the impacts of damage and diseases on the body systems.

Grade Level(s): 11th-12th grades

Related Priority Standards (State &/or National): MLS Science Standards Grades 6-12 

Course-Level Scope & Sequence (Units &/or Skills)

Unit 1: Human Body Plan

Students will be able to:

  • Use directional terms to accurately describe planes and positions of the human body.
  • Describe the location of the major body cavities and list the organs found within each cavity.
  • Compare and contrast the structure and function of the main types of body tissues.
  • Analyze tissue samples to determine if cancerous cells have developed.
  • Arrange the levels of organization of the human body from the smallest, simplest unit to the whole organism.
  • Apply concepts of diffusion and osmosis to cellular homeostasis.

Unit 2: Skeletal, Muscular, & Integumentary Systems

Students will be able to:

  • Identify the major bones of the human body using their correct anatomical terms.
  • Apply the structures of a cross section of bone to its function in providing support, strength and maintaining homeostasis.
  • Compare and contrast the process of bone formation and resorption (bone cycling) in both homeostasis and disease.
  • Create and explore models that represent the structures, functions and locations of joints in the human body.
  • Determine the type of tissue found at different types of joints in the body.
  • Apply how the structure of a synovial joint allows for movement.
  • Describe the range of motion each synovial joint provides and how that relates back to its structure.
  • Identify the major skeletal muscles / muscle groups.
  • Identify the functions of the 3 types of muscles.
  • Explain the macroscopic relationship between opposing pairs of skeletal muscles, including the structures that link the skeletal and muscular systems and their associated functions.
  • Explain the microscopic process involved in muscle contraction (Sliding Filament Theory).
  • Identify the layers and structures of the integumentary system.
  • Analyze the ways in which the integumentary system protects the body and helps to maintain homeostasis.
  • Apply the impacts of UV radiation to the evolution of the variety of skin pigmentation across human populations.
  • Predict how diaspora can impact human health as it relates to skin pigmentation.
  • Identify the various types of bone fractures and their possible causes.
  • Describe the process of fracture healing.
  • Identify the various types of injuries and diseases of joints, muscles, and bones and their possible causes.
  • Identify the various types of injuries to the skin.

Unit 3: Digestive System & Nutrition

Students will be able to:

  • Identify the major structures of the alimentary canal.
  • Identify the accessory organs and structures that aid in digestion including sphincters and mesentery.
  • Explain the digestive processes that occur throughout the alimentary canal.
  • Analyze in what organs those digestive processes occur.
  • Explain the role of enzymes in the digestive process including their location along the alimentary canal.
  • Predict the outcome should a digestive process or organ fail to operate properly.
  • Compare and contrast the macronutrients and their roles in the body.
  • Classify the micronutrients including their roles in the body.
  • Explore types of malnutrition and their physiological impacts.
  • Analyze how medical conditions such as mental health disorders, bowel diseases and enzyme disorders can lead to malnutrition.
  • Relate social, political, environmental, and economic conditions to the prevalence of malnutrition across different regions and populations.
  • Compare the external and internal anatomy of the fetal pig to human anatomy.
  • Explore the anatomical features unique to a fetus and how that relates to the fetal growth and development process.

Unit 4: Excretory and Urinary Systems

Students will be able to:

  • Classify and connect the excretory organs of the body, including those that function within other systems. (digestive, integumentary and urinary)
  • Identify the role of excretion in maintaining homeostasis.
  • Summarize the effects of diseases and/or disorders on the excretory process.
  • Identify the structures at three different levels: urinary system, kidney and nephron.
  • Compare and contrast the path of blood and its components through the kidney and nephron during the production of urine.
  • Analyze the processes of filtration, transport and secretion that occur to produce urine.
  • I can interpret and relate the results of urinalysis to the functioning of a the urinary system.

Unit 5: Cardiovascular and Respiratory System

Students will be able to:

  • Identify the structures and functions of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
  • Evaluate physiological responses of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to external and internal stimuli. 
  • Draw connections between the cardiovascular/respiratory system to all other systems of the body.
  • Evaluate the potential factors that drive health care disparities among different populations related to these two systems.
  • Evaluate the compensatory mechanisms of indigenous peoples living in hypoxic conditions and its applications to medicine

Unit 6: Lymphatic & Immune System

Students will be able to:

  • Describe the structures and functions of the lymphatic system and its organs.
  • Illustrate the relationship between the lymphatic system and the circulatory system.
  • Demonstrate the lymphatic system’s role in homeostasis of fluids and activating the immune response.
  • Describe the structures and functions of the tissues that make up the immune system.
  • Explore the immune response to pathogenic disease and tissue damage.
  • Investigate some possible mechanisms behind immune evasion.
  • Experiment with the immune responses to incompatible blood types in a blood transfusion.
  • Evaluate physiological responses of the immune system to tissue damage and disease.

Unit 7: Nervous System

Students will be able to:

  • Identify the major anatomical features of the brain and spine.
  • Correlate parts of the brain and spine with their functions in the body.
  • Illustrate how the central nervous system is protected by the layers of the meninges.
  • Predict the effect of simulation and play, or lack thereof, on brain development.
  • Differentiate between the functions of the central and peripheral nervous systems.
  • Explore the impacts of diseases or damage to structures of the nervous system.
  • Explore the functions of the cranial nerves.
  • Evaluate the opposing effect of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems and their role in homeostasis.
  • Describe the path and evolutionary significance of reflexes.
  • Connect the pattern of sensory receptors and cortical space to the homunculus and its evolutionary significance.
  • Explain the mechanism by which messages are transmitted down the length of a neuron.
  • Assess the role of neurotransmitters in nervous system communication.
  • Evaluate how the nervous system is able to perform sensory input, integration and motor output.

Unit 8: Endocrine System 

Students will be able to:

  • Identify the structures and functions of the endocrine system.
  • Evaluate how hormone pathways regulate and maintain homeostasis, development and physiological processes.
  • Infer the effects of a failure to properly regulate hormone levels
  • Predict the outcomes of interference in the production or regulation of hormones and feedback loops & explore the use of hormone replacement therapy and treatment.

Course Resources & Materials:  Anatomy in Clay Learning Systems, District and/or teacher-made resources

Date Last Revised/Approved: May 2019