# Overview of K-5 Mathematics • ### Kindergarten

In Kindergarten instructional time will focus on two critical areas: representing, relating, and operating on whole numbers, initially with sets of objects; and describing shapes and space. More learning time will be devoted to numbers than to other topics. Students will use numbers to represent quantities and solve quantitative problems. They will choose, combine, and apply effective strategies for solving these quantitative problems.

• Module 1: Counting and Cardinality
• Module 2: Shapes and Space- Identify and Describe Shapes
• Module 3: Measurement and the Number system - Describe and compare measurable attributes
• Module 4: Investigating Addition and Subtraction - Compose and Decompose “5”
• Module 5: Investigating Addition and Subtraction - Compose and Decompose “10”
• Module 6: Number and Operations in Base Ten - Work with Numbers “11-19”

In Grade 1, instructional time will focus on four critical areas: 1) developing understanding of addition, subtraction, and strategies for addition and subtraction; 2) developing understanding of whole number relationships and place value, including grouping tens and ones; 3) developing understanding of linear measurement and measuring lengths as iterating length units; and 4) reasoning about attributes of and composing and decomposing geometric shapes.

• Module 1: Understanding Numbers
• Module 2: Early Addition and Subtraction
• Module 3: Measurement and Geometry
• Module 4: Addition and Subtraction
• Module 5: Data and Geometry
• Module 6: Addition, Subtraction and Place Value

In Grade 2, instructional time will focus on four critical areas: extending understanding of base-ten notation; building fluency with addition and subtraction; using standard units of measure; and describing and analyzing shapes. The major emphasis in second grade is on understanding place value and using an understanding of place value and understanding of addition and subtraction to add and subtract fluently.

• Spiral Module: Extending Number Sense-Working with Time and Money
• Module 1: Adding and Subtracting - Becoming Fluent Within 20
• Module 2: Extending Number Sense- Understands Place Value Part 1
• Module 3: Describe and Analyze Shapes and Fractions
• Module 4: Adding and Subtracting: Becoming Fluent with Adding and Subtracting - Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction
• Module 5: Collecting, Representing and Interpreting Data
• Module 6: Estimate and Measure Lengths in Standard Units
• Module 7: Adding and Subtracting Applying Base Ten Understanding - Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract
• Module 8: Developing Multiplication and Division

In Grade 3, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: (1) developing understanding of multiplication and division and strategies for multiplication and division within 100; (2) developing understanding of fractions, especially unit fractions (fractions with numerator 1); (3) developing understanding of the structure of rectangular arrays and of area; and (4) describing and analyzing two- dimensional shapes. In addition, students use place value understanding to add and subtract within 1000, and solve problems involving measurement data that they collect and analyze.

• Module 1: Early Multiplication
• Module 2: Addition, Subtraction, & Place Value
• Module 3: Multiplication and Division
• Module 4: Number Sense and Operations in Fractions
• Module 5: Data & Measurement
• Module 6: Geometry & Measurement
• Module 7: Multiplication and Division - Working with Larger Numbers

In Grade 4, instructional time should focus on three critical areas: (1) developing understanding and fluency with multi-digit multiplication and developing understanding of dividing to find quotients involving multi-digit dividends; (2) developing an understanding of fraction equivalence, addition, and subtraction of fractions with like denominators, and multiplication of fractions by whole numbers; (3) understanding that geometric figures can be analyzed and classified based on their properties, such as having parallel sides, perpendicular sides, particular angle measures, and symmetry. In addition, students work on fluently adding and subtracting multi-digit numbers, solving problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from larger units to smaller units, representing and interpreting data, and generating and analyzing patterns.

• Module 1: Place Value, Addition and Subtraction - Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers
• Module 2: Multiplication and Division - development of  fluency with multi-digit multiplication and development of division to find quotients involving multi-digit dividends
• Module 3: Fractions and Decimals
• Module 4: Geometry and Measurement
• Module 5: Represent and Interpret Data
• Module 6: Operations and Algebraic Thinking - Generate and Analyze patterns